CALIBER Ethnicity phenotype

person Phenotype Ethnicity
person Type Demographics
person Data sources Primary care (CPRD), Hospital data (HES)
person Clinical Terminologies n/a
person Valid event date range 01/01/1999 - 01/07/2016
person Sex Female/Male
person Agreed 23.11.2012 (Revision 2)
person Authors Julie George, Rohini Mathur, Anoop Dinesh Shah, Mar Pujades-Rodriguez, Spiros Denaxas, Liam Smeeth, Adam Timmis, Harry Hemingway

Primary Care

In the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, primary care data) we extracted ethnicity information from Read terms in the clinical table (see below).

Read codeRead termCALIBER category
9S10.00 White British White British
9S13.00 White Scottish White British
9S14.00 Other white British ethnic group White British
9i00.00 White British - ethnic category 2001 census White British
9i20.00 English - ethnic category 2001 census White British
9i21.00 Scottish - ethnic category 2001 census White British
9i22.00 Welsh - ethnic category 2001 census White British
9i23.00 Cornish - ethnic category 2001 census White British
9S11.00 White Irish White Irish
9SA9.00 Irish (NMO) White Irish
9SI..00 Irish traveller White Irish
9i1..00 Irish - ethnic category 2001 census White Irish
9i10.00 White Irish - ethnic category 2001 census White Irish
9i24.00 Northern Irish - ethnic category 2001 census White Irish
9i2C.00 Irish Traveller - ethnic category 2001 census White Irish
9S12.00 Other white ethnic group White Other
9SAA.00 Greek/Greek Cypriot (NMO) White Other
9SAA.11 Greek (NMO) White Other
9SAA.12 Greek Cypriot (NMO) White Other
9SAB.00 Turkish/Turkish Cypriot (NMO) White Other
9SAB.11 Turkish (NMO) White Other
9SAB.12 Turkish Cypriot (NMO) White Other
9SAC.00 Other European (NMO) White Other
9T1..00 New Zealand ethnic groups White Other
9T1Y.00 Other New Zealand ethnic group White Other
9T1Z.00 New Zealand ethnic group NOS White Other
9i2..00 Other White background - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i26.00 Cypriot (part not stated) - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i27.00 Greek - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i28.00 Greek Cypriot - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i29.00 Turkish - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2A.00 Turkish Cypriot - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2B.00 Italian - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2D.00 Traveller - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2E.00 Gypsy/Romany - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2F.00 Polish - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2G.00 Baltic Estonian/Latvian/Lithuanian - ethn categ 2001 census White Other
9i2H.00 Commonwealth (Russian) Indep States - ethn categ 2001 census White Other
9i2J.00 Kosovan - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2K.00 Albanian - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2L.00 Bosnian - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2M.00 Croatian - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2N.00 Serbian - ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9i2P.00 Other republics former Yugoslavia - ethnic categ 2001 census White Other
9i2T.00 Other White or White unspecified ethnic category 2001 census White Other
9S1..00 White White NOS
9i25.00 Ulster Scots - ethnic category 2001 census White NOS
9i2Q.00 Mixed Irish and other White - ethnic category 2001 census White NOS
9i2R.00 Oth White European/European unsp/Mixed European 2001 census White NOS
9i2S.00 Other mixed White - ethnic category 2001 census White NOS
9SB5.00 Black Caribbean and White Mixed White and Black Caribbean
9i3..00 White and Black Caribbean - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed White and Black Caribbean
9SB6.00 Black African and White Mixed White and Black African
9i4..00 White and Black African - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed White and Black African
9SB2.00 Other ethnic, Asian/White orig Mixed White and Asian
9i5..00 White and Asian - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed White and Asian
9S45.00 Black E Afric Asia/Indo-Caribb Mixed Other
9S45.11 Black East African Asian Mixed Other
9S45.12 Black Indo-Caribbean Mixed Other
9S46.00 Black Indian sub-continent Mixed Other
9S47.00 Black - other Asian Mixed Other
9S52.00 Other Black - Black/Asian orig Mixed Other
9SA6.00 E Afric Asian/Indo-Carib (NMO) Mixed Other
9SB..00 Other ethnic, mixed origin Mixed Other
9SB3.00 Other ethnic, mixed white orig Mixed Other
9SB4.00 Other ethnic, other mixed orig Mixed Other
9i0..00 British or mixed British - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9i6..00 Other Mixed background - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9i60.00 Black and Asian - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9i61.00 Black and Chinese - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9i63.00 Chinese and White - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9i64.00 Asian and Chinese - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9i65.00 Other Mixed or Mixed unspecified ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9iA7.00 Caribbean Asian - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed Other
9S51.00 Other Black - Black/White orig Mixed NOS
9SB1.00 Other ethnic, Black/White orig Mixed NOS
9i62.00 Black and White - ethnic category 2001 census Mixed NOS
9S6..00 Indian Indian
9SA7.00 Indian sub-continent (NMO) Indian
9iA1.00 Punjabi - ethnic category 2001 census Indian
9S7..00 Pakistani Pakistani
9iA2.00 Kashmiri - ethnic category 2001 census Pakistani
9S8..00 Bangladeshi Bangladeshi
9SA6.11 East African Asian (NMO) Other Asian
9SA8.00 Other Asian (NMO) Other Asian
9SH..00 Other Asian ethnic group Other Asian
9i7..00 Indian or British Indian - ethnic category 2001 census Other Asian
9i8..00 Pakistani or British Pakistani - ethnic category 2001 census Other Asian
9i9..00 Bangladeshi or British Bangladeshi - ethn categ 2001 census Other Asian
9iA..00 Other Asian background - ethnic category 2001 census Other Asian
9iA3.00 East African Asian - ethnic category 2001 census Other Asian
9iA8.00 British Asian - ethnic category 2001 census Other Asian
9iA9.00 Mixed Asian - ethnic category 2001 census Other Asian
9iAA.00 Other Asian or Asian unspecified ethnic category 2001 census Other Asian
9S2..00 Black Caribbean Black Caribbean
9S42.00 Black Caribbean/W.I./Guyana Black Caribbean
9S42.11 Black Caribbean Black Caribbean
9S42.12 Black West Indian Black Caribbean
9S42.13 Black Guyana Black Caribbean
9SA3.00 Caribbean I./W.I./Guyana (NMO) Black Caribbean
9SA3.11 Caribbean Island (NMO) Black Caribbean
9SA3.12 West Indian (NMO) Black Caribbean
9SA3.13 Guyana (NMO) Black Caribbean
9iB..00 Caribbean - ethnic category 2001 census Black Caribbean
Read terms are hierarhically organized in top-level chapters i.e. chapter G....00 is related to Circulatory System Diseases and sub-headings i.e. heading G2...00 is related to Hypertensive Heart Disease while G3...00 is related to Ischaemic Heart Disease.
Ethnicity information was recorded in the HES patient table which uses the 2001 census categorization.
White
A	British
B	Irish
C	Any other White background
 
Mixed
D	White and Black Caribbean
E	White and Black African
F	White and Asian
G	Any other mixed background
 
Asian or Asian British
H	Indian
J	Pakistani
K	Bangladeshi
L	Any other Asian background
 
Black or Black British
M	Caribbean
N	African
P	Any other Black background
 
Other Ethnic Groups
R	Chinese
S	Any other ethnic group
 
Z	Not stated
Not applicable.
Patients were categorised as White, South Asian, Black, or Other/Mixed ethnic groups; these groups reflect the most prevalent ethnic groups in the 2011 Census in England and Wales. The White group included White British, White European and other White Groups. South Asian included patients from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and other Asian ethnic groups, including Asian British. Black included those belonging to African, Caribbean or other Black groups, including Black British. The Other/ Mixed group included those from any mixed ethnic group and other small minority ethnic groups, including Japanese and Chinese.
CALIBER Ethnicity Phenotype flowchart
Flow chart diagram illustrating the CALIBER phenotype algorithm for ethnicity
Risk factor Publication
Sex How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes and incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet. 2015 Feb 26;385 Suppl 1:S86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60401-9.
Smoking Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014.
Blood pressure Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1.
Heart rate Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2.
Ethnicity George J et al. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178945. eCollection 2017.
Alcohol Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j909.
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Neutrophils Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022.
Eosinophils Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Depression Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016.
Polymyalgia rheumatica Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Lymphocytes Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245.
Risk factor Publication
Sex How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes and incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet. 2015 Feb 26;385 Suppl 1:S86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60401-9.
Smoking Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014.
Blood pressure Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1.
Heart rate Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2.
Ethnicity George J et al. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178945. eCollection 2017.
Alcohol Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j909.
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Neutrophils Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022.
Eosinophils Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Depression Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016.
Polymyalgia rheumatica Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Lymphocytes Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245.
Gho JMIH et al. An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England: incidence and predictors. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 3;8(3):e018331. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018331. PMID: 29502083


Steele AJ et al. Machine learning models in electronic health records can outperform conventional survival models for predicting patient mortality in coronary artery disease. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 31;13(8):e0202344. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202344. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30169498


Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2. PMID: 29966429


Koudstaal S et al. Prognostic burden of heart failure recorded in primary care, acute hospital admissions, or both: a population-based linked electronic health record cohort study in 2.1 million people. Eur J Heart Fail. 2017 Sep;19(9):1119-1127. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.709. Epub 2016 Dec 23. PMID: 28008698


Chung SC et al. Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 5;13(9):e0202359. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202359. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30183734


Bell S et al. Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. PMID: 28331015


Pasea L et al. Personalising the decision for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy: development, validation and potential impact of prognostic models for cardiovascular events and bleeding in myocardial infarction survivors. Eur Heart J. 2017 Apr 7;38(14):1048-1055. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw683. PMID: 28329300


Shah AD et al. Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022. PMID: 28254179


Asaria M et al. Using electronic health records to predict costs and outcomes in stable coronary artery disease. Heart. 2016 May 15;102(10):755-62. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308850. Epub 2016 Feb 10. PMID: 26864674


Daskalopoulou M et al. Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27105076


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19. PMID: 26786818


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245. eCollection 2016. PMID: 26978266


Shah AD et al. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27621833


Timmis A et al. Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy in stable coronary disease: comparative observational study of benefits and harms in unselected versus trial populations. BMJ. 2016 Jun 22;353:i3163. PMID: 27334486


Walker S et al. Long-term healthcare use and costs in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a population-based cohort using linked health records (CALIBER). Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2016 Jan 20;2(2):125-140. doi: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcw003. PMID: 27042338


George J et al. How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1. PMID: 26330414


Morley KI et al. Defining disease phenotypes using national linked electronic health records: a case study of atrial fibrillation. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 4;9(11):e110900. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110900. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25369203


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20. PMID: 25416721


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25144739


Rapsomaniki E et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1. PMID: 24881994


Shah AD et al. Type 2 diabetes and incidence of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Feb;3(2):105-13. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70219-0. Epub 2014 Nov 11. PMID: 25466521


Rapsomaniki E et al. Prognostic models for stable coronary artery disease based on electronic health record cohort of 102 023 patients. Eur Heart J. 2014 Apr;35(13):844-52. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht533. Epub 2013 Dec 17. PMID: 24353280