CALIBER Diabetes mellitus phenotype

person Phenotype Diabetes mellitus
person Type Disease or syndrome
person Data sources Primary care (CPRD), hospital admission data (HES)
person Clinical Terminologies Read, ICD-10
person Valid event date range 01/01/1999 - 01/07/2016
person Sex Female/Male
person Agreed 23.11.2012 (Revision 2)
person Authors Julie George, Emily Herrett, Liam Smeeth, Harry Hemingway, Anoop Shah, Spiros Denaxas

Primary Care (incident)

In the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, primary care data) we ascertained diabetes cases by searching for Read terms related to diagnosis.


Read codeRead termCALIBER category
C108.12 Type 1 diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C108.13 Type I diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C108011 Type I diabetes mellitus with renal complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C108012 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with renal complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C108211 Type I diabetes mellitus with neurological complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C108212 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with neurological complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C108411 Unstable type I diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C108412 Unstable type 1 diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C108511 Type I diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type I diabetes mellitus
C108512 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type I diabetes mellitus
C108711 Type I diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C108712 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C108811 Type I diabetes mellitus - poor control Type I diabetes mellitus
C108812 Type 1 diabetes mellitus - poor control Type I diabetes mellitus
C108911 Type I diabetes mellitus maturity onset Type I diabetes mellitus
C108912 Type 1 diabetes mellitus maturity onset Type I diabetes mellitus
C108A11 Type I diabetes mellitus without complication Type I diabetes mellitus
C108D11 Type I diabetes mellitus with nephropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C108E11 Type I diabetes mellitus with hypoglycaemic coma Type I diabetes mellitus
C108E12 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with hypoglycaemic coma Type I diabetes mellitus
C108F11 Type I diabetes mellitus with diabetic cataract Type I diabetes mellitus
C108H11 Type I diabetes mellitus with arthropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C108J11 Type I diabetes mellitus with neuropathic arthropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C108J12 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with neuropathic arthropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E.00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E.11 Type I diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E000 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with renal complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E100 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with ophthalmic complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E200 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with neurological complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E300 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with multiple complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E311 Type I diabetes mellitus with multiple complications Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E400 Unstable type 1 diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E411 Unstable type I diabetes mellitus Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E500 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E511 Type I diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E600 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with gangrene Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E700 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E711 Type I diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E800 Type 1 diabetes mellitus - poor control Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E900 Type 1 diabetes mellitus maturity onset Type I diabetes mellitus
C10E911 Type I diabetes mellitus maturity onset Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EA00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus without complication Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EA11 Type I diabetes mellitus without complication Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EB00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with mononeuropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EC00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with polyneuropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EC11 Type I diabetes mellitus with polyneuropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10ED00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EE00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with hypoglycaemic coma Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EF00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with diabetic cataract Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EG00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with peripheral angiopathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EH00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with arthropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EJ00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with neuropathic arthropathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EK00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with persistent proteinuria Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EL00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with persistent microalbuminuria Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EM00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EM11 Type I diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EN00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with ketoacidotic coma Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EN11 Type I diabetes mellitus with ketoacidotic coma Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EP00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with exudative maculopathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EP11 Type I diabetes mellitus with exudative maculopathy Type I diabetes mellitus
C10EQ00 Type 1 diabetes mellitus with gastroparesis Type I diabetes mellitus
C109.12 Type 2 diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C109.13 Type II diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C109011 Type II diabetes mellitus with renal complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C109012 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with renal complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C109111 Type II diabetes mellitus with ophthalmic complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C109112 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with ophthalmic complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C109211 Type II diabetes mellitus with neurological complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C109212 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with neurological complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C109411 Type II diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type II diabetes mellitus
C109412 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type II diabetes mellitus
C109511 Type II diabetes mellitus with gangrene Type II diabetes mellitus
C109512 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with gangrene Type II diabetes mellitus
C109611 Type II diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109612 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109711 Type II diabetes mellitus - poor control Type II diabetes mellitus
C109712 Type 2 diabetes mellitus - poor control Type II diabetes mellitus
C109A11 Type II diabetes mellitus with mononeuropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109B11 Type II diabetes mellitus with polyneuropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109C11 Type II diabetes mellitus with nephropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109C12 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109D11 Type II diabetes mellitus with hypoglycaemic coma Type II diabetes mellitus
C109D12 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypoglycaemic coma Type II diabetes mellitus
C109E11 Type II diabetes mellitus with diabetic cataract Type II diabetes mellitus
C109E12 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic cataract Type II diabetes mellitus
C109F11 Type II diabetes mellitus with peripheral angiopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109F12 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral angiopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109G11 Type II diabetes mellitus with arthropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109G12 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with arthropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109H11 Type II diabetes mellitus with neuropathic arthropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109H12 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with neuropathic arthropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C109J00 Insulin treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C109J12 Insulin treated Type II diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C109K00 Hyperosmolar non-ketotic state in type 2 diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F.00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F.11 Type II diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F000 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with renal complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F011 Type II diabetes mellitus with renal complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F100 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with ophthalmic complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F200 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with neurological complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F211 Type II diabetes mellitus with neurological complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F300 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with multiple complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F311 Type II diabetes mellitus with multiple complications Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F400 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F411 Type II diabetes mellitus with ulcer Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F500 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with gangrene Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F600 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F611 Type II diabetes mellitus with retinopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F700 Type 2 diabetes mellitus - poor control Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F711 Type II diabetes mellitus - poor control Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F900 Type 2 diabetes mellitus without complication Type II diabetes mellitus
C10F911 Type II diabetes mellitus without complication Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FA00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with mononeuropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FA11 Type II diabetes mellitus with mononeuropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FB00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with polyneuropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FB11 Type II diabetes mellitus with polyneuropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FC00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FD00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypoglycaemic coma Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FD11 Type II diabetes mellitus with hypoglycaemic coma Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FE00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic cataract Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FE11 Type II diabetes mellitus with diabetic cataract Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FF00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral angiopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FG00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with arthropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FH00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with neuropathic arthropathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FJ00 Insulin treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FJ11 Insulin treated Type II diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FK00 Hyperosmolar non-ketotic state in type 2 diabetes mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FL00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with persistent proteinuria Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FL11 Type II diabetes mellitus with persistent proteinuria Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FM00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with persistent microalbuminuria Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FM11 Type II diabetes mellitus with persistent microalbuminuria Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FN00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FP00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with ketoacidotic coma Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FQ00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with exudative maculopathy Type II diabetes mellitus
C10FR00 Type 2 diabetes mellitus with gastroparesis Type II diabetes mellitus

Primary Care (prevalent)


Read codeRead termCALIBER category
1434.00 H/O: diabetes mellitus H/O diabetes
14F4.00 H/O: Admission in last year for diabetes foot problem H/O diabetes
14P3.00 H/O: insulin therapy H/O diabetes
2126300 Diabetes resolved H/O diabetes
212H.00 Diabetes resolved H/O diabetes
9OL9.00 Diabetes monitoring deleted H/O diabetes
Read terms are hierarhically organized in top-level chapters i.e. chapter G....00 is related to Circulatory System Diseases and sub-headings i.e. heading G2...00 is related to Hypertensive Heart Disease while G3...00 is related to Ischaemic Heart Disease.

Secondary Care (incident and prevalent)

In Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, hospital admission data) we used ICD-10 codes (see below) for Transcient Ischaemic Attack diagnosis when marked as the primary diagnosis i.e. the main condition treated or investigated during the relevant episode of healthcare. We used the date of admission to hospital as the date of the event.


ICD-10 codeICD-10 termCALIBER category
E10 Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Insulin dependent diabetes
E11 Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Non insulin dependent diabetes
E12 Malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus Secondary diabetes
O242 Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy: Pre-existing malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus Secondary diabetes
Not applicable.

Combining evidence across sources to define and date phenotypes

The aim of this algorithm is to identify patients with type 2 diabetes. The majority of diabetic patients in this cohort have type 2 diabetes, and we are not aiming to identify all patients with type 1 diabetes (this algorithm would not be suitable for a study focusing on type I diabetes). Our algorithm does not use any information after study entry to classify patients, in order to reduce immortal time bias. However this bias is not eliminated completely because specific type 1 or type 2 codes may have been entered retrospectively only for patients who survived.

Our algorithm leaves many patients with an unclassified type of diabetes. However, rather than using a more complex algorithm, we carried out sensitivity analyses with different definitions (e.g. the type 2 definition or any diabetes).

CALIBER Diabetes Phenotype flowchart
Flow chart diagram illustrating the CALIBER phenotype algorithm for diabetes mellitus
Pseudocode implementation
IF there is at least one record for code for type 2 diabetes 
and no record for type 1 diabetes then classify the patient as type 2 diabetes

ELSE if there is at least one record for code for type I diabetes 
and no record for type 2 diabetes then classify the patient as type 1 diabetes

ELSE if there is at least one record of type 1 diabetes 
and type 2 diabetes then classify as diabetes of uncertain type

ELSE if there are no diabdiag_gprd records for this patient:

If there is at least one record for NIDDM and no record for IDDM 
    then classify the patient as type 2 diabetes

ELSE there is at least one record for IDDM 
    and no record for NIDDM 
    then classify the patient as type 1 diabetes

ELSE if there is at least one record of diabetes
    then classify as diabetes of uncertain type

ELSE classify as no diabetes
Risk factor Publication
Sex How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes and incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet. 2015 Feb 26;385 Suppl 1:S86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60401-9.
Smoking Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014.
Blood pressure Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1.
Heart rate Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2.
Ethnicity George J et al. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178945. eCollection 2017.
Alcohol Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j909.
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Neutrophils Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022.
Eosinophils Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Depression Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016.
Polymyalgia rheumatica Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Lymphocytes Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245.
Risk factor Publication
Sex How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes and incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet. 2015 Feb 26;385 Suppl 1:S86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60401-9.
Smoking Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014.
Blood pressure Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1.
Heart rate Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2.
Ethnicity George J et al. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178945. eCollection 2017.
Alcohol Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j909.
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Neutrophils Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022.
Eosinophils Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Depression Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016.
Polymyalgia rheumatica Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Lymphocytes Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245.
Gho JMIH et al. An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England: incidence and predictors. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 3;8(3):e018331. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018331. PMID: 29502083


Steele AJ et al. Machine learning models in electronic health records can outperform conventional survival models for predicting patient mortality in coronary artery disease. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 31;13(8):e0202344. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202344. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30169498


Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2. PMID: 29966429


Koudstaal S et al. Prognostic burden of heart failure recorded in primary care, acute hospital admissions, or both: a population-based linked electronic health record cohort study in 2.1 million people. Eur J Heart Fail. 2017 Sep;19(9):1119-1127. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.709. Epub 2016 Dec 23. PMID: 28008698


Chung SC et al. Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 5;13(9):e0202359. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202359. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30183734


Bell S et al. Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. PMID: 28331015


Pasea L et al. Personalising the decision for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy: development, validation and potential impact of prognostic models for cardiovascular events and bleeding in myocardial infarction survivors. Eur Heart J. 2017 Apr 7;38(14):1048-1055. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw683. PMID: 28329300


Shah AD et al. Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022. PMID: 28254179


Asaria M et al. Using electronic health records to predict costs and outcomes in stable coronary artery disease. Heart. 2016 May 15;102(10):755-62. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308850. Epub 2016 Feb 10. PMID: 26864674


Daskalopoulou M et al. Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27105076


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19. PMID: 26786818


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245. eCollection 2016. PMID: 26978266


Shah AD et al. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27621833


Timmis A et al. Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy in stable coronary disease: comparative observational study of benefits and harms in unselected versus trial populations. BMJ. 2016 Jun 22;353:i3163. PMID: 27334486


Walker S et al. Long-term healthcare use and costs in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a population-based cohort using linked health records (CALIBER). Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2016 Jan 20;2(2):125-140. doi: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcw003. PMID: 27042338


George J et al. How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1. PMID: 26330414


Morley KI et al. Defining disease phenotypes using national linked electronic health records: a case study of atrial fibrillation. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 4;9(11):e110900. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110900. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25369203


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20. PMID: 25416721


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25144739


Rapsomaniki E et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1. PMID: 24881994


Shah AD et al. Type 2 diabetes and incidence of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Feb;3(2):105-13. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70219-0. Epub 2014 Nov 11. PMID: 25466521


Rapsomaniki E et al. Prognostic models for stable coronary artery disease based on electronic health record cohort of 102 023 patients. Eur Heart J. 2014 Apr;35(13):844-52. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht533. Epub 2013 Dec 17. PMID: 24353280