CALIBER Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) phenotype

person Phenotype Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (fatal/non-fatal)
person Type Disease or syndrome
person Data sources Primary care (CPRD), hospital admission data (HES), disease registry (MINAP)
person Clinical Terminologies Read, ICD-10, ICD-9, OPCS-4
person Valid event date range 01/01/1999 - 01/07/2016
person Sex Female/Male
person Agreed 23.11.2012 (Revision 2)
person Authors Julie George, Emily Herrett, Liam Smeeth, Harry Hemingway, Anoop Shah, Spiros Denaxas

Primary Care (incident)

In the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, primary care data) we ascertained AAA cases by searching for Read terms related to an abdominal aortic aneurism diagnosis or evidence of endovascular/transluminal procedures related to the emergency repair of an aneurysmal segment of the aorta.


Read codeRead termCALIBER category
G71..00 Aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G713.00 Abdominal aortic aneurysm which has ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G713.11 Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G713000 Ruptured suprarenal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G714.00 Abdominal aortic aneurysm without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G714.11 AAA - Abdominal aortic aneurysm without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G714000 Juxtarenal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G715.00 Ruptured aortic aneurysm NOS Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G715000 Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G716.00 Aortic aneurysm without mention of rupture NOS Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G716000 Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G718.00 Leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm Abdominal aortic aneurysm
G71z.00 Aortic aneurysm NOS Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Emergency repair of aneurysmal segment

Read codeRead termCALIBER category
7A11000 Emerg repl aneurysm bifurc aorta by anast aorta to fem art Emergency AAA repair
7A11200 Emerg repl aneurysm bifurc aorta by anast aorta to iliac a Emergency AAA repair
7A11211 Y graft of abdominal Aortic aneurysm (emergency) Emergency AAA repair
7A13.00 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta Emergency AAA repair
7A13.11 Emergency repair of aortic aneurysm Emergency AAA repair
7A13300 Emerg replace aneurysm infrarenal aorta by anast aorta/aorta Emergency AAA repair
7A13400 Emerg replace aneurysm abdom aorta by anast aorta/aorta NEC Emergency AAA repair
7A13411 Tube graft abdominal Aortic aneurysm (emergency) Emergency AAA repair
7A13y00 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta OS Emergency AAA repair
7A13z00 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta NOS Emergency AAA repair

Read terms are hierarhically organized in top-level chapters i.e. chapter G....00 is related to Circulatory System Diseases and sub-headings i.e. heading G2...00 is related to Hypertensive Heart Disease while G3...00 is related to Ischaemic Heart Disease.

Secondary Care (incident and prevalent)

In Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, hospital admission data) we used ICD-10 terms (see below) for AAA diagnosis when marked as the primary diagnosis i.e. the main condition treated or investigated during the relevant episode of healthcare. We used the date of admission to hospital as the date of the event. We additionally searched for OPCS-4 terms indicating the emergency repair of an aneurysmal segment of the aorta.


ICD-10 codeICD-10 termCALIBER category
I713 Abdominal aortic aneurysm, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I714 Abdominal aortic aneurysm, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I715 Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I716 Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I718 Aortic aneurysm of unspecified site, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I719 Aortic aneurysm of unspecified site, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Emergency repair of aneurysmal segment

OPCS-4 codeOPCS-4 termCALIBER category
L18 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L181 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of ascending aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta AAA procedure
L182 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of thoracic aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L183 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of suprarenal abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta AAA procedure
L184 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of infrarenal abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta AAA procedure
L185 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L186 Emergency replacement of aneurysmal bifurcation of aorta by anastomosis of aorta to iliac artery AAA procedure
L188 Other specified emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L189 Unspecified emergency replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L19 Other replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L191 Replacement of aneurysmal segment of ascending aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L192 Replacement of aneurysmal segment of thoracic aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L193 Replacement of aneurysmal segment of suprarenal abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L194 Replacement of aneurysmal segment of infrarenal abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L195 Replacement of aneurysmal segment of abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L196 Replacement of aneurysmal bifurcation of aorta by anastomosis of aorta to iliac artery NEC AAA procedure
L198 Other specified other replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L199 Unspecified other replacement of aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L20 Other emergency bypass of segment of aorta AAA procedure
L201 Emergency bypass of segment of ascending aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L202 Emergency bypass of segment of thoracic aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L203 Emergency bypass of segment of suprarenal abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L204 Emergency bypass of segment of infrarenal abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L205 Emergency bypass of segment of abdominal aorta by anastomosis of aorta to aorta NEC AAA procedure
L206 Emergency bypass of bifurcation of aorta by anastomosis of aorta to iliac artery NEC AAA procedure
L208 Other specified other emergency bypass of segment of aorta AAA procedure
L209 Unspecified other emergency bypass of segment of aorta AAA procedure
L254 Operations on aneurysm of aorta NEC AAA procedure
L27 Transluminal insertion of stent graft for aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L271 Endovascular insertion of stent graft for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm AAA procedure
L272 Endovascular insertion of stent graft for suprarenal aortic aneurysm AAA procedure
L273 Endovascular insertion of stent graft for thoracic aortic aneurysm AAA procedure
L274 Endovascular insertion of stent graft for aortic dissection in any position AAA procedure
L275 Endovascular insertion of stent graft for aortic aneurysm of bifurcation NEC AAA procedure
L276 Endovascular insertion of stent graft for aorto-uniiliac aneurysm AAA procedure
L278 Other specified transluminal insertion of stent graft for aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L279 Unspecified transluminal insertion of stent graft for aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L28 Transluminal operations on aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L281 Endovascular insertion of stent for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm AAA procedure
L282 Endovascular insertion of stent for suprarenal aortic aneurysm AAA procedure
L283 Endovascular insertion of stent for thoracic aortic aneurysm AAA procedure
L284 Endovascular insertion of stent for aortic dissection in any position AAA procedure
L285 Endovascular insertion of stent for aortic aneurysm of bifurcation NEC AAA procedure
L286 Endovascular insertion of stent for aorto-uniiliac aneurysm AAA procedure
L288 Other specified transluminal operations on aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure
L289 Unspecified transluminal operations on aneurysmal segment of aorta AAA procedure

In mortality data, we used ICD-9 and ICD-10 terms (see below) located at the underlying cause of death position:


ICD-10 codeICD-10 termCALIBER category
I713 Abdominal aortic aneurysm, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I714 Abdominal aortic aneurysm, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I715 Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I716 Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I718 Aortic aneurysm of unspecified site, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
I719 Aortic aneurysm of unspecified site, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm

ICD-9 codeICD-9 termCALIBER category
4413 Aortic aneurysm and dissection ; Abdominal aneurysm, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
4414 Aortic aneurysm and dissection ; Abdominal aneurysm without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
4415 Aortic aneurysm and dissection ; Aortic aneurysm of unspecified site, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
4416 Aortic aneurysm and dissection ; Thoracoabdominal aneurysm, ruptured Abdominal aortic aneurysm
4417 Aortic aneurysm and dissection ; Thoracoabdominal aneurysm, without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm
4419 Aortic aneurysm and dissection ; Aortic aneurysm of unspecified site without mention of rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm

Combining evidence across sources to define and date phenotypes

Primary care 
1. Diagnosis of AAA during a consultation
2. Performance of emergency AAA repair procedure recording during a consultation

Secondary care 
1. Diagnosis of AAA as the primary diagnosis of any hospitalization
2. Performance of emergency AAA repair procedure recorded

Mortality 
1. Leaking or ruptured AAA as underlying cause of death 
2. AAA without leak or rupture as underlying cause of death
Risk factor Publication
Sex How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes and incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet. 2015 Feb 26;385 Suppl 1:S86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60401-9.
Smoking Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014.
Blood pressure Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1.
Heart rate Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2.
Ethnicity George J et al. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178945. eCollection 2017.
Alcohol Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j909.
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Neutrophils Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022.
Eosinophils Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Depression Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016.
Polymyalgia rheumatica Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Lymphocytes Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245.
Risk factor Publication
Sex How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes and incidence of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet. 2015 Feb 26;385 Suppl 1:S86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60401-9.
Smoking Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
Socioeconomic status Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014.
Blood pressure Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1.
Heart rate Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2.
Ethnicity George J et al. Ethnicity and the first diagnosis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases: Associations in a linked electronic health record cohort of 1 million patients. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 9;12(6):e0178945. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178945. eCollection 2017.
Alcohol Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j909.
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Giant cell arteritis Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Neutrophils Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022.
Eosinophils Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Depression Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016.
Polymyalgia rheumatica Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19
Lymphocytes Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016.
Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245.
Gho JMIH et al. An electronic health records cohort study on heart failure following myocardial infarction in England: incidence and predictors. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 3;8(3):e018331. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018331. PMID: 29502083


Steele AJ et al. Machine learning models in electronic health records can outperform conventional survival models for predicting patient mortality in coronary artery disease. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 31;13(8):e0202344. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202344. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30169498


Archangelidi O et al. Clinically recorded heart rate and incidence of 12 coronary, cardiac, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial diseases in 233,970 men and women: A linked electronic health record study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018 Sep;25(14):1485-1495. doi: 10.1177/2047487318785228. Epub 2018 Jul 2. PMID: 29966429


Koudstaal S et al. Prognostic burden of heart failure recorded in primary care, acute hospital admissions, or both: a population-based linked electronic health record cohort study in 2.1 million people. Eur J Heart Fail. 2017 Sep;19(9):1119-1127. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.709. Epub 2016 Dec 23. PMID: 28008698


Chung SC et al. Time spent at blood pressure target and the risk of death and cardiovascular diseases. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 5;13(9):e0202359. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202359. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30183734


Bell S et al. Association between clinically recorded alcohol consumption and initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases: population based cohort study using linked health records. BMJ. 2017 Mar 22;356:j909. PMID: 28331015


Pasea L et al. Personalising the decision for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy: development, validation and potential impact of prognostic models for cardiovascular events and bleeding in myocardial infarction survivors. Eur Heart J. 2017 Apr 7;38(14):1048-1055. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw683. PMID: 28329300


Shah AD et al. Neutrophil Counts and Initial Presentation of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases: A CALIBER Cohort Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Mar 7;69(9):1160-1169. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.12.022. PMID: 28254179


Asaria M et al. Using electronic health records to predict costs and outcomes in stable coronary artery disease. Heart. 2016 May 15;102(10):755-62. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308850. Epub 2016 Feb 10. PMID: 26864674


Daskalopoulou M et al. Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men. PLoS One. 2016 Apr 22;11(4):e0153838. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153838. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27105076


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Associations between polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis and 12 cardiovascular diseases. Heart. 2016 Mar;102(5):383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308514. Epub 2016 Jan 19. PMID: 26786818


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 15;11(3):e0151245. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151245. eCollection 2016. PMID: 26978266


Shah AD et al. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study. Open Heart. 2016 Sep 5;3(2):e000477. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2016-000477. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27621833


Timmis A et al. Prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy in stable coronary disease: comparative observational study of benefits and harms in unselected versus trial populations. BMJ. 2016 Jun 22;353:i3163. PMID: 27334486


Walker S et al. Long-term healthcare use and costs in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a population-based cohort using linked health records (CALIBER). Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2016 Jan 20;2(2):125-140. doi: 10.1093/ehjqcco/qcw003. PMID: 27042338


George J et al. How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1. PMID: 26330414


Morley KI et al. Defining disease phenotypes using national linked electronic health records: a case study of atrial fibrillation. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 4;9(11):e110900. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110900. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25369203


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218. Epub 2014 Nov 20. PMID: 25416721


Pujades-Rodriguez M et al. Socioeconomic deprivation and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in 1.9 million women and men: implications for risk prediction and prevention. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 21;9(8):e104671. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104671. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25144739


Rapsomaniki E et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May 31;383(9932):1899-911. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60685-1. PMID: 24881994


Shah AD et al. Type 2 diabetes and incidence of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1.9 million people. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Feb;3(2):105-13. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70219-0. Epub 2014 Nov 11. PMID: 25466521


Rapsomaniki E et al. Prognostic models for stable coronary artery disease based on electronic health record cohort of 102 023 patients. Eur Heart J. 2014 Apr;35(13):844-52. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht533. Epub 2013 Dec 17. PMID: 24353280